Kinetic and mechanistic analysis of the association and dissociation of inhibitors interacting with secreted aspartic acid proteases 1 and 2 from Candida albicans

01 January 2003

Backman, D. and Danielson, U.H. (2003) Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1646, 184-195.

In order to elucidate the characteristics of different aspartic proteases (Sap) secreted by Candida albicans, the kinetics of the interaction (k(on), k(off)) between Sap1 and Sap2 with acetyl-pepstatin and pepstatin A was determined at different pH by biosensor technology. The enzymes were biotinylated and coupled to a streptavidin-coated sensor chip, whereupon acetyl-pepstatin or pepstatin A was injected and the interaction was measured in real time. Sap2 showed a faster k(on) and a higher affinity for acetyl-pepstatin than Sap1, regardless of pH. The values for both k(on) and k(off) decreased with increased pH from 3.8 to 5.0, except for the k(off) for Sap1, which was only influenced by the pH change from 3.8 to 4.4. Binding of acetyl-pepstatin to Sap1 or Sap2 obviously proceeds by a different mechanism than dissociation of the inhibitor. Association appears to be coupled to protonation of a catalytic aspartic acid residue, consistent with reduced k(on) values at higher pH. In contrast, the stability of the complex is reduced at lower pH due to reduced hydrogen bonding capacity of aspartic acid residues acting as hydrogen bond acceptors. Differences in the number and distribution of charged nonactive site residues in Sap1 and Sap2 evidently result in different electrostatic properties of the binding sites, primarily influencing the association step.

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