Shuman, C.F., Markgren, P.-O., Hämäläinen, M. and Danielson, U.H. (2003) Antiviral Research, 58, 235-242.
The kinetics of the interaction between drug-resistant variants of HIV-1 protease (G48V, V82A, L90M, I84V/L90M, and G48V/V82A/I84V/L90M) and clinically used inhibitors (amprenavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir, and saquinavir) were determined using biosensor technology. The enzyme variants were immobilized on a biosensor chip and the association and dissociation rate constants (k(on) and k(off)) and affinities (K(D)) for interactions with inhibitors were determined. A unique interaction kinetic profile was observed for each variant/inhibitor combination. Substitution of single amino acids in the protease primarily resulted in reduced affinity through increased k(off) for the inhibitors. For inhibitors characterized by fast association rates to wild-type protease (ritonavir, amprenavir, and indinavir), additional substitutions resulted in a further reduction of affinity by a combination of decreased k(on) and increased k(off). For inhibitors characterized by slow dissociation rates to wild-type enzyme (saquinavir and nelfinavir), the decrease of affinity conferred by additional mutations was attributed to increased k(off) values. Development of resistance thus appears to be associated with a change of the distinctive kinetic parameter contributing to high affinity. Further inhibitor design should focus on improving the "weak point” of the lead compound, that being either k(on) or k(off).
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